Study on the Sustainable Social Consensus of Establishing Energy and Social Transformation


Study on the Sustainable Social Consensus of Establishing Energy and Social Transformation

Research summary

German energy transformation in recent years gets the attention of the world. Germany experience to the world is interested in the use of renewable energy to the highest proportion of Denmark, Norway, New Zealand and other countries that are rich in natural resources, low energy consumption of heavy industry in the country; Germany as the world heavy industry, but in 2014 Germany's renewable energy production is expected to account for 25.8% of the total generating capacity, will be the first time to become the largest pillar of German power supply. In 2014, Germany's solar power generation accounted for about 5.8% of total electricity generation. Other renewable energy, wind power generation accounted for about 8.6% of total electricity generation, biomass power generation accounted for about 8%, and hydroelectric power accounted for about 3.4%. It is generally believed that renewable energy to cope with peak load is its weakness, but Germany through the design and management of excellent power grid, the regulation of national power generation system results, Germany in the local time on May 11, 2014 PM 12:00 to 1:00, renewable energy total contribution to 43.54GW, accounting for 74%, nearly three quarters. In other words, renewable energy in some specific time, has been able to cope with such a heavy industry in Germany, the peak load.

Germany is not only to change energy efficiency, promotes energy conservation and carbon reduction, the development and increase of renewable energy, to encourage the development of new energy and energy-saving carbon reduction technology research and development, emphasized on both, because Germany as early as in 1990s, began to reorganize country Industrial structure, planning to take effective climate measures to reduce the overall carbon emissions of many policies, attention to overall "energy transformation society" social change project. In fact, national reports, including Australia and Japan, also refer to non-scientific cooperation such as behavioral changes and lifestyle changes. So a successful energy transformation should be based on social transformation. Changes in lifestyle and related institutional and policy changes behind it should be an indispensable and necessary condition for Taiwan to successfully turn to Deep Decarbonization Society.

In 2011, German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) published a report entitled "World in Transition, A Social Contract for Sustainability", which advocated a collective responsibility to not yet happen risk of climate change and other harmful disasters. Global social contract relies on countries with strong power to guide the world, which comes from the concept of natural law, the spirit of social consensus is to increase participation in culture, civic responsibility, for the care of next generation. The success of social transformation of Germany's social and policy basis for transition conditions provides the world's energy transformation society and policy reform as an excellent example.

The report first talked about Germany in the concept of sustainable development in the world, how to carry out the need of social contract in Karl Polanyi’s "great transformation" (the literal translation of social contract is social contract, but Chinese daily context translated into social consensus is easier to understand to the public). This social consensus comes from the way of production, regulating system and lifestyle changes. Great transformation must be from a long-term goal, under the great proposition of social and natural world how to coexist, rethinking the development of the state and society of democratic system design, making low-carbon, sustainable economic system embedded in social consensus background. Thus the first part of this report is about the process and mechanism of such social consensus in Germany.

The second part speaks of Germany's vision for low carbon and non-nuclear future. Germany, after decades of social debate, finally agreed that future development strategy should be towards a long period of investment strategy in renewable energy, improve the efficiency of resource use, should be from the concept of protection of atmosphere, to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, to create a new economic model. In particular, this report pointed out that the promotion of low-carbon policy, to proceed to develop should be renewable energy rather than nuclear energy, nuclear energy is only to meet current electricity demand, but real problem should be to change the way of human life. This report also believes that policymakers should follow the trend of rapid development, technical breakthrough is just around the corner, but in politic, legal, system play relatively important role in how to promote sustainable development education is also an important issue. At present, the most criticized things are not technical breakthrough, but simply do not want to change. Therefore, it suggested that there should be leading countries engage in technological development, but also r4eform system, to provide a model for reference to backward countries.

The third part of this report refers to the transformation of climate change as the core concept of three areas (transformation fields), three areas in different dynamic practice in the process related to each other, but progressed separately. But in German experience, three ways progressed at the same time can be more comprehensive energy society transformation large projects. The first is energy transformation - energy production and supply, including reduction of fossil fuels, renewable energy development and energy conservation, and its derived economic impact. It is directly related to carbon reduction and energy, economic system changes, especially the emerging industrialized countries will face more severe test. The second is urban transformation. Urbanization makes energy and more resources consumed. So when the city itself towards low-carbon development, that can be considered the key to social transformation. The third is land use transformation. This concept encompasses overall land use, and the most straightforward issue is agricultural production. But more detailed look at this issue, will find its core lies in human and land use, production and consumption relationship. People must rethink the relationship with land and nature should be restored to what kind of relationship. When United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that by 2050, the world's food production must be increased by 70% to be sufficient; agricultural production, land sustainable development, biodiversity and other facings, are being severely tested.

German in above-mentioned is very attractive and clear reported, Taiwan can really learn from it, but that after all is belong to Germany, rather a practice strategy in Europe. Based on WBGU's "Sustainable Social Consensus under Global Change" report, this study will be based on the translation of this report, in-depth study and analysis of situation in Germany, and then in-depth study of Taiwan's energy, social and economic situation, put forward Taiwan's sustainable society possibility of consensus.

Copyright © 2018. 風險社會與政策研究中心.Risk Society and Policy Research Center, National Taiwan University.