Research Plan
[Prof. Dr. Ortwin Renn's Visit to RSPRC]
Prof. Dr. Ortwin Renn, Scientific Director of the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, participated the First International KLASICA Case Study Symposium at NTU. Prof. Dr. Kuei-Tien Chou, the director of RSPRC, with his colleagues, accompanied with Pro. Dr. Renn to visit the RSPRC office after the forum on 21th of November, 2016.
[Ms. Bärbel Höhn's Visit to RSPRC]
Ms. Bärbel Höhn, Chairperson of German Federal Diet, visited RSPRC on June 29th 2016. Ms. Bärbel Höhn later participated the "German Experience in Energy-Transition and Nuclear Waste Disposal Discussion Forum", in which she shared views on the issues related to climate change policy, energy transition and nuclear waste management.
[ National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education(PIRE)'s Visit to RSPRC]
Prof. Everette Joseph and Prof. Terri Adams and other fellows of PIRE visited RSPRC on 22th March, 2017. They participated a forum held by RSPRC and Graduate Institute of National Development, NTU, that focus on climate change and disaster prevention.
【2017 The Workshop on Social Impact Assessment】
The Workshop was hosted by RSPRC on January 11, 2017. Dr. David Ip, Professor Emeritus from Hong Kong Polytechnic University and University of Queensland, was invited to give a talk introducing some key issues and sharing his thoughts on the international theory and framework of social impact assessment.
[Prof. Moura Quayle's Visit to RSPRC]
Prof. Moura Quayle (Strategic Design with the Sauder School of Business and Director of the Liu Institute for Global Issues at University of British Columbia) participated the 2nd Challengers’ Meetup on October 27, 2016 at NTU. She then had a meeting with some of our RSPRC fellows discussing issues of the current difficulties of energy transition in Canada and Taiwan.
[Prof. Dr. Timo Busch's Visit to RSPRC]
Prof. Dr. Susanne Rupp, the Vice President of Universität Hamburg, led a group of faculty members participating “2016 NTU-UHH Matchmaking Workshop”at NTU. Prof. Dr. Kuei-Tien Chou, the director of RSPRC, accompanied with Prof. Dr. Timo Buschto visit the RSPRC office after the forum on 12th of December, 2016.
[2016 International Conference of Social Welfare Politics in Chinese Societies]
The conference was held by RSPRC on 15th of Nov, 2016. The main theme of this year's conference was "New Risk and New Social Policy: Horizon among Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong."
[Academic Exchange Activity] Prof. Dr. Fumiko Kasuga and Prof. Dr. Bach Tan Sinh Visiting to RSPRC
Prof. Dr. Fumiko Kasuga (Section Chief, National Institute of Health Sciences, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan) and Prof. Dr. Bach Tan Sinh (Acting Director of the Research Centre of S&T Policy, National Institute for Science and Technology Policy and Strategic Studies, Vietnam) visited RSPRC on 24th of November, 2016.
[2016 The Workshop on Energy Transition in East-Asia]
The workshop was hosted by RSPRC and Graduate Institute of National Development, NTU, on 10th and 11th of August,2016. Main topics of this workshop include the structural change in energy systems, the energy shift trends after Fukushima disaster, the decentralising renewable energy and the condition of energy policy.

Study on the Sustainable Social Consensus of Establishing Energy and Social Transformation

Study on the Sustainable Social Consensus of Establishing Energy and Social Transformation

Research summary

  German energy transformation in recent years gets the attention of the world. Germany experience to the world is interested in the use of renewable energy to the highest proportion of Denmark, Norway, New Zealand and other countries that are rich in natural resources, low energy consumption of heavy industry in the country; Germany as the world heavy industry, but in 2014 Germany's renewable energy production is expected to account for 25.8% of the total generating capacity, will be the first time to become the largest pillar of German power supply. In 2014, Germany's solar power generation accounted for about 5.8% of total electricity generation. Other renewable energy, wind power generation accounted for about 8.6% of total electricity generation, biomass power generation accounted for about 8%, and hydroelectric power accounted for about 3.4%. It is generally believed that renewable energy to cope with peak load is its weakness, but Germany through the design and management of excellent power grid, the regulation of national power generation system results, Germany in the local time on May 11, 2014 PM 12:00 to 1:00, renewable energy total contribution to 43.54GW, accounting for 74%, nearly three quarters. In other words, renewable energy in some specific time, has been able to cope with such a heavy industry in Germany, the peak load.

  Germany is not only to change energy efficiency, promotes energy conservation and carbon reduction, the development and increase of renewable energy, to encourage the development of new energy and energy-saving carbon reduction technology research and development, emphasized on both, because Germany as early as in 1990s, began to reorganize country Industrial structure, planning to take effective climate measures to reduce the overall carbon emissions of many policies, attention to overall "energy transformation society" social change project. In fact, national reports, including Australia and Japan, also refer to non-scientific cooperation such as behavioral changes and lifestyle changes. So a successful energy transformation should be based on social transformation. Changes in lifestyle and related institutional and policy changes behind it should be an indispensable and necessary condition for Taiwan to successfully turn to Deep Decarbonization Society.

  In 2011, German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) published a report entitled "World in Transition, A Social Contract for Sustainability", which advocated a collective responsibility to not yet happen risk of climate change and other harmful disasters. Global social contract relies on countries with strong power to guide the world, which comes from the concept of natural law, the spirit of social consensus is to increase participation in culture, civic responsibility, for the care of next generation. The success of social transformation of Germany's social and policy basis for transition conditions provides the world's energy transformation society and policy reform as an excellent example.

  The report first talked about Germany in the concept of sustainable development in the world, how to carry out the need of social contract in Karl Polanyi’s "great transformation" (the literal translation of social contract is social contract, but Chinese daily context translated into social consensus is easier to understand to the public). This social consensus comes from the way of production, regulating system and lifestyle changes. Great transformation must be from a long-term goal, under the great proposition of social and natural world how to coexist, rethinking the development of the state and society of democratic system design, making low-carbon, sustainable economic system embedded in social consensus background. Thus the first part of this report is about the process and mechanism of such social consensus in Germany.

  The second part speaks of Germany's vision for low carbon and non-nuclear future. Germany, after decades of social debate, finally agreed that future development strategy should be towards a long period of investment strategy in renewable energy, improve the efficiency of resource use, should be from the concept of protection of atmosphere, to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, to create a new economic model. In particular, this report pointed out that the promotion of low-carbon policy, to proceed to develop should be renewable energy rather than nuclear energy, nuclear energy is only to meet current electricity demand, but real problem should be to change the way of human life. This report also believes that policymakers should follow the trend of rapid development, technical breakthrough is just around the corner, but in politic, legal, system play relatively important role in how to promote sustainable development education is also an important issue. At present, the most criticized things are not technical breakthrough, but simply do not want to change. Therefore, it suggested that there should be leading countries engage in technological development, but also r4eform system, to provide a model for reference to backward countries.

  The third part of this report refers to the transformation of climate change as the core concept of three areas (transformation fields), three areas in different dynamic practice in the process related to each other, but progressed separately. But in German experience, three ways progressed at the same time can be more comprehensive energy society transformation large projects. The first is energy transformation - energy production and supply, including reduction of fossil fuels, renewable energy development and energy conservation, and its derived economic impact. It is directly related to carbon reduction and energy, economic system changes, especially the emerging industrialized countries will face more severe test. The second is urban transformation. Urbanization makes energy and more resources consumed. So when the city itself towards low-carbon development, that can be considered the key to social transformation. The third is land use transformation. This concept encompasses overall land use, and the most straightforward issue is agricultural production. But more detailed look at this issue, will find its core lies in human and land use, production and consumption relationship. People must rethink the relationship with land and nature should be restored to what kind of relationship. When United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that by 2050, the world's food production must be increased by 70% to be sufficient; agricultural production, land sustainable development, biodiversity and other facings, are being severely tested.

  German in above-mentioned is very attractive and clear reported, Taiwan can really learn from it, but that after all is belong to Germany, rather a practice strategy in Europe. Based on WBGU's "Sustainable Social Consensus under Global Change" report, this study will be based on the translation of this report, in-depth study and analysis of situation in Germany, and then in-depth study of Taiwan's energy, social and economic situation, put forward Taiwan's sustainable society possibility of consensus.

Construction of basic energy transformation database

Construction of basic energy transformation database

Research Summary

  The establishment of database is the cornerstone of all research projects. This study aims at the construction of basic energy transformation database, which is guided by critical, problem-oriented, knowledge-oriented, and the way of daily life. For a long time, many researchers in Taiwan have put forward relevant data to explore our energy policy, energy industry development and industrial energy consumption and other issues, and official units and state-owned enterprises such as the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Taiwan Electric Power Company are also constantly producing relevant data as the basis for discussion. However, academic data are still lacking in comparison with each other and discussion, and scattered in a variety of academic papers; on the other hand, although official data as more benchmarking potential, but in view of our official units data often failed to publish calculation process together, so application is also vulnerable to question.

  In the case of critics, Center intends to incorporate existing research data, domestic and foreign research reports and current relevant energy development information, through review, comparison and preliminary analysis; on one hand integrates into a database and proceeds long-term tracking, on the other hand also opens up more for future enough to explore issues. Through long-term database construction, on one hand can collect at home and abroad long-term energy use and transformation trend, on the other hand, as future promotion basis of research and transformation, proposed energy-related issues can be provided for verification and discussion basic platform.

  As far as the topic is concerned, database also carries out policies such as policies and laws, such as National Climate Change Adaptation Program and Energy Development Program, as well as current legislation, for example, gradual promotion of four carbon reduction acts, including: “Renewable Energy Development Ordinance”, “Energy Conservation Act”, “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act” and “Energy Tax Ordinance” (Draft), which “Renewable Energy Development Ordinance” provisions and “Energy Management Act” amendment were completed in year 2009, Green House Gas Reduction and Management Act was enacted and implemented in 2015, but there was no specific reduction target and its legislative framework was not sufficient to cope with climate change. Step by step to establish structure (legal and policy), information side (basic database and the calculation required for transition), driving side (sorting out international and domestic emerging governance initiatives) and action (important actors and their related discourses), as the basic blueprints for Taiwan's social energy transformation and future governance participation, to discuss the dilemma and driving force of Taiwan's transformation.

  These technical data, in addition to be the basis for academic research and discussion, will also attempt to integrate and translate to comparative language for common people. In fact, this energy transformation database is very relevant to the day-to-day experience of business, people's livelihood and government. Through basic survey, the establishment of long-term observation and forecast the trend of database, to further explore Taiwan society in energy transformation issues on social basis of issues and drive the possibility of change. Social basic issues include general public price such as water prices, electricity prices and willingness to switch to various energy sources and their long-term investment under development curve, and how the basic energy-related information on the impact on people's livelihood price fluctuation and so on.

Study on Risk Management and System of Air Pollution in Taiwan

Study on Risk Management and System of Air Pollution in Taiwan

Research summary

  In recent years, Taiwan's air pollution issues have been constantly fermented and warming, causing broad attention and public opinions from social and civic groups. However, the problem of air pollution is not only related to conflict between environmental protection and economic development, but also related to the health risks of our people, and even more, related to national governance under environmental justice risk distribution problem. It can be found that air pollution of human society, in fact, presents a typical risk of social characteristics, because "air and people" has close relationship, the most direct impact is physical life problem. Therefore, environmental pollution control subject of air pollution, in fact, dangerously tests of government's risk management model, if taking traditional thinking to deal with environment policies in the past, delivers a single type administrative organs of air pollution control policies, it may make government affected people conflict between distrust and protest. Therefore, the issues need to be coordinated across different government departments and cross-domain governance in order to solve environmental problems under air pollution, health hazards and environmental education and other issues.

  In air pollution control, in 1975, we developed air pollution control law, began our air quality maintenance starting point. However, with economic development, high-polluting industries also continue to grow under the context of regulatory standards are not advancing with times, there is no significant transformation of industrial physique, in such structural institutional issues, and one of the characteristics of air pollution is affected by climate, topography, photochemical reaction and so on, but with derivative, diffusion, cumulative asymmetric distribution characteristics. Its special nature of administrative control is difficult to control behavior. Even under current scientific knowledge and monitoring of air pollution, there are still problems with regulatory dilemmas. According to current situation of science, technology and knowledge, our control policies and system design makes control of air pollution control issues more dangerous, Taiwan's risk management hysteresis and information hiding, also becomes more obvious.

  In this regard, this project considers that air pollution control issues are serious and need further in-depth exploration. To follow risk society, regulatory science theories and other macro-perspective and ways, and by literature review method to study advanced countries and organizations how to deal with air pollution control; also by experts, focus groups and other research methods for more in-depth and clarify status of our air pollution control policies, standardize the standards and the dilemma of problems. Such as how to solve Taiwan central and southern industries, manufacturing counties and cities air pollution emissions affect industrial and manufacturing industries and counties pollution? At present, the allocation of air control areas in Taiwan can effectively carry out pollution control responsibility? The implementation of total air pollution control in Taiwan, the dilemma of control policies and the lack of legal system? How does government effectively carry out risk communication on air pollution?

  With the discussion of above sub-topics, to point out that under the framework of environmental risk policies, the concept and mode of cross-border risk management should be more needed in our government system; with this plan, we can promote our current Hazardous Air Pollutant, HAPs control law; more importantly, this plan attempts to put forward government to face emerging risk management challenges, should be different from traditional cross-border risk management model, create mechanisms and platforms to allow public to conduct public scrutiny. This study is expected to be able to disseminate risk knowledge of air pollution prevention and control through large-scale academic seminars, workshops, publications, etc., and to provide innovation and reform for the model and system of science and technology governance as reference.

Study on Carbon Emission and Pollution of Industry and Energy

Study on Carbon Emission and Pollution of Industry and Energy

Research summary

  Over past 20 years, although Taiwan government, with the requirements of International Green Convention, and gradually adjusts sustainable economic and industrial policy, in real industry expansion is continuous development and planning of high energy consumption and high carbon biochemical industry, and at different stages Triggering major social struggles. And even in facing of international carbon reduction and domestic environmental movement double pressure, but still cannot stop emerging industrialized countries often to expand energy-intensive industries, in particular, can be made into a variety of people's livelihood petrochemical industry as the main means of rapid economic expansion. Year-round comparison of petrochemical industry, energy-intensive industries, industrial sector energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, energy intensity and GDP contribution, we can see, nearly 10 years of petrochemical industry, energy consumption and emissions accounted for the proportion of country increased, and drove country's growth; however, the proportion of its contribution to GDP has not increased, but has been maintained at a low flat level. In other words, it shows that most of the petrochemical industry has remained in the low-value-added products of energy consumption for more than a decade and has not been actively transitioned. Taiwan, which is highly dependent on long-term energy, has the problem of structural change of Taiwan's industrial transformation, in addition to the systematic cause of high energy consumption and high-emission carbon in the country, which has not changed for a long time.

  Taiwan due to lack of natural resources, in 20 years, nearly 98% of energy were from foreign imports, imports of energy dependence is quite high, 97.53% (2015), 97.75% (2014), 97.58% (2013), 97.49% (2012), 97.68% (2011), and the number of imported energy increased steadily with the growth of economy. In recent years, the number of imported energy is 144,554 kiloliters of oil equivalent (1000KLOE) (2014), 140,129 kiloliters of oil equivalent (1000KLOE) (2013), 137,695 kiloliters of oil equivalent (1000KLOE) (2012). Corresponding to high degree of dependence on energy imports, energy consumption in structure, since 1990, nearly 20 years, Taiwan's energy consumption increased steadily, and since 1995 in addition to transport sector, service sector and housing sector increased stably slightly higher, mainly in the energy consumption of the substantial growth of industrial sector; industrial sector energy consumption in year 2000 exceeded 45%, accounting for nearly 50% in 2005, accounting for 52.5% in 2009, accounting for up to 53.61% in 2010. These trends show that Taiwan's energy consumption has increased significantly with the growth of industrial sector, which is the main reason for energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions growth. And did not follow important climate change carbon reduction policy and industrial restructuring plan, go for clear turn, but run reversely.

  In addition, in recent years, Taiwan's air pollution issues have been constantly fermented and warming, causing social and civic groups of broad attention and public opinion. However, the problem of air pollution is not only related to the conflict between environmental protection and economic development, but also to the health risks of our people, and will further lead to the risk distribution of environmental injustice under national governance. It can be found that the air pollution of human society, in fact, presents a typical risk of social characteristics, because "air and people" have close relationship, the most direct impact is physical life problem. Therefore, environmental pollution control subject of air pollution, in fact, the dangerous test of government's risk management model, if take traditional thinking to deal with environmental policy, delivery single type of administrative organs of air pollution control policies, it may make government suffer from people’s distrust and protest conflict. Therefore, the issues need to be coordinated across different government departments and cross-domain governance in order to solve environmental problems under air pollution, health hazards and environmental education and other issues.

  In this regard, the project that Taiwan's industrial and energy transformation issues should be discussed with air pollution control issues, and conduct in-depth study. To follow risk society, regulatory science theory and other macro-perspective and ways, by literature review method to study advanced countries and organizations how to deal with air pollution control; also by experts, focus groups and other research methods for more in-depth and clarify the status of our air pollution control policy, standardize the standards and dilemma problems. Such as how to solve our central and southern regions industries, manufacturing counties and cities air pollution emissions affect industrial and manufacturing industry and county pollution? At present, allocation of air control area can effectively carry out pollution control responsibility? The implementation of total air pollution control conditions, the plight of control policy and lack of legal system? How does government effectively carry out the risk communication on air pollution? The purpose of this study is to explore Taiwan's past economic-driven development model, bringing high energy consumption, high carbon structure, confronting the confrontation between low carbon sustainability and air quality requirements, and the development of environmental and health dilemma governance transformation needs.

Study on the Policy and Legal System of Driving Energy Transformation

Study on the Policy and Legal System of Driving Energy Transformation

Research summary

Legal System and Social Governance of Electricity Liberalization

  Current policy on electricity liberalization market is still only electricity generation market, so existing information on the amount of carbon emissions only in electricity generation sector, future comprehensive implementation of electricity liberalization, power transmission sector can be independent from existing state business , and even further development to sale of electricity sector competition, so in the future can be expected under power separation business, how to master cumulative transport and distribution sector carbon emissions data, energy conservation and carbon reduction thinking and strategy into electricity liberalization planning considerations, and further reflected in the amendment of electricity law, that is an important issue on power policy.

  In electricity liberalization planning sector, power grid industry is generally considered to be "regulatory sector" rather than a "free competition sector" as power generation and electricity sales. Due to renewable energy supply, it is generally considered to be unstable, subject to the constraints of weather and environmental factors, and to challenge the management of power grid itself, when energy policies actively promote renewable energy and increase the proportion of renewable energy to total power generation, transmission network and distribution network how to respond to ensure its stability and security, that is the core issues in power market transformation process. Taiwan's current energy policy is related to the construction and promotion of smart grid.

  On the demand side, such as after electrical liberalization, promote users directly to buy power (Power Purchase Agreement) from renewable energy power generation industry, rather than as now electricity generated by renewable energy power generation can only be purchased by Taipower, cannot be sold directly to electricity demand users, this will be able to accelerate the development of renewable energy in Taiwan. From supply side, according to the latest draft of the latest electricity law, in the short-term measures (2 years after adoption of electricity law), will open power generation, electricity sales, power grid industry (transmission and distribution industry) is exclusive state business. How to fully meet the wisdom of the power grid expansion, from smart grid of six facets, power generation and scheduling, transmission, distribution, users and other different levels to promote energy conservation and carbon reduction, to improve green application targets, worth exploring.

Energy transformation and air pollution control: ban burning coal and petroleum coke.

  Air pollutants are spread across the areas in monsoon-like media, such as air pollution from Yunlin County, which not only has healthy impact on the residents of Yunlin County, but also pollutes across administrative areas through monsoon. Changhua County residents also are affected.

  Moreover, cross-regional air pollution highlights the necessity and shortcomings of regional governance mechanism, partly because our air pollution control law as individual administrative regions to define responsibility, easy to cause local government limited to their own situation.

  The issue of ban burning raw coal and petroleum coke comes from air pollution caused by improper use of energy and its environmental health effects. Raw coal and petroleum coke are easy to cause airborne pollutants. Article 28 (1) of Air Pollution Law stipulates that "Sale or use of raw coal, petroleum coke or other substances which cause air pollution should be checked, apply to the competent authority of municipality directly under Central Government and county (city), and go through examination and approval to permit”, and relevant sub-law is "Raw coal, petroleum coke or other substances that cause air pollution sale or use license management measures”.

  The purpose of this study is to examine the legitimacy of energy use such as raw coal and petroleum coke, and to increase public environmental impact and health effects arising from improper use of energy by social initiatives and to propose relevant research and initiatives on energy transformation, to carry out Taiwan's energy transformation of the social transformation of ideological preparation, the purpose is to promote economic or industrial transformation, and to achieve environmental, social and economic sustainable development.

Center Statement

What's New

2017 Working Paper
Towards the Road to Energy Transformation
Sociology of Climate Change: A Review of High Carbon Society and Its Transformation Challenges

Featured Articles

Articles View Hits
2166638